Fractures or fracture-dislocations, if not treated, may consolidate with a considerable deformation of the affected bones.
Within the foot, this might result in painful joint arthritis or, more correctly, “arthrosis”. This means that the impaired joint undergoes destruction of its cartilage and painful stiffness results.
Within the foot, anatomical bone and joint axes are mandatory for free function. In cases of deformation following “malunited” fractures, reconstructing the foot and ankle axes together with joint fusions might be the key to painfree motion of essential joints.